Hylaeus brevicornis – Garden

Distribution
A common species found throughout much of lowland Britain from Kent to the Isles of Scilly, and northwards to Kirkcudbrightshire. There are remarkably few records from Wales, where the species may be under-recorded. Also known from the Isle of Man, Scilly and the Channel Islands. In Ireland it is widely distributed, mainly in the eastern and southern counties. Widely distributed throughout much of Europe, north Africa (see distribution map in Koster (1986a)), the Middle East, the Caucasus, Iran and in Japan (as H. perforator).
Status (in Britain only)
This species is not regarded as being scarce or threatened.
Habitat
Found in woodland, fenland, calcareous grassland, heathland and on the coast.
Flight period
Late May to mid-September. In France this bee is reported to have two or three generations a year (Janvier, 1972), and the same may occur in the British Isles, at least in the southern part of its range.
Nesting biology
Specimens have been reared several times from dead bramble (Rubus) stem-nests (Danks, 1971; G R Else, pers. obs.). The nesting habits, nests and prepupae have been described in detail by Danks (1971).
Flowers visited
These include bramble (Rubus fruticosus agg.), sea-holly (Eryngium maritimum), wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium), wild carrot (Daucus carota), sea spurge (Euphorbia paralias), bog pimpernel (Anagallis tenella), thyme (Thymus sp.), sheep’s-bit (Jasione montana), ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense) and beaked hawk’s-beard (Crepis vesicaria).
Parasites
The ichneumonid wasp Hoplocyrtus bellosus (as H. signatorius) and a eurytomid wasp in the genus Eurytoma have been reared from nests of this bee (Danks, 1971). The first species was also reared from stem-nests of this bee by Field & Foster (1988), though it was erroneously cited by them as Perithous divinator.

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